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Gaskov Semyon Alexandrovich
Surname, name, patronymic of the student
On the topic Gas-dynamic processes in the cavities of air launchers
systems for underwater objects

Direction of training 24.03.01 Missile systems and astronautics
direction index full direction name

The object of study is an outboard launcher.
The purpose of the work: to determine the parameters in the cavities of air launch systems for underwater objects while providing the required launch parameters of the product.
The paper considers a system using an air pressure accumulator, identifies the advantages and disadvantages of such a system. A possible design of the TPK with an air flow regulator was presented. A program was compiled that implements the Euler method for solving ODEs and all the necessary calculations were made.
The results of the work are a mathematical model that describes the behavior of gas-dynamic processes (changes in pressures, temperatures, etc.) during launch in an outboard launcher.
Scope: armament of submarines and uninhabited underwater vehicles.

List of used abbreviations
VAD – air pressure accumulator
VVD – high pressure air
Navy – navy
VND – low pressure air
UUV – uninhabited underwater vehicle
ODE – ordinary differential equation
PL – submarine
PU – launcher
SO – self-defense
TA – torpedo tubes
TPK – transport and launch container
TRV – torpedo – missile weapons

Table of contents

  • 1 Use of VVD systems for submarines and ROVs 7
  • 1.1 Advantages and nuances of using VVD 7
  • 1.2 Layout and placement of GPA and torpedoes on submarines and other underwater mobile carriers. 12
  • 1.3 Possible design of TPK for basing weapons on submarines and NPA 20
  • 1.4 The principle of operation of the transport and launch container 22
  • 2 Description of the mathematical model of PU 25
  • 3 Results of the study of gas-dynamic processes in the cavities of air launch systems for underwater objects 31
  • 3.1 First series of calculations 31
  • 3.2 Second series of calculations 36
  • Conclusion 41
  • List of used literature 42
  • Annex A 43
  • Annex B 45


The aim of the work is to determine the parameters in the cavities of air launch systems for underwater objects while providing the required parameters for launching the product. Also, in the course of this work, the main parameters of the ejected object (speed, movement, etc.) will be determined. To calculate these parameters, a special program was developed that describes the mathematical model of the PU and with the help of which all the necessary values \u200b\u200bare found for their further processing.
The complex of torpedo-rocket weapons and self-defense (TRV and SO) of an underwater or surface ship provides for the use of many types of weapons: torpedoes, mines, missiles for various purposes, means of countering enemy weapons, self-defense means and much more. As a rule, on submarines (submarines), such a complex is located inside a strong hull and it is based on tube torpedo tubes (TA) with automated reloading. Due to layout limitations, their number has reached a natural maximum: 6 – 8 for non-nuclear submarines and up to 10 – 12 SVs installed on nuclear multi-purpose submarines. At present, the industry has accumulated some experience in the use of modular technical systems and weapon systems. The world practice of shipbuilding also uses the principle of modularity. The concept of a submarine with a modular payload, developed for the US Navy, provides for the need to organize a large space between the sides for the installation of interchangeable permeable sections with a set of weapons necessary for a specific task. We are talking about the creation of submarines of a qualitatively new architectural type, the development of which will require many years and large resources. A multifunctional modular system should have a flexible architecture for placing weapons modules in various places on the ship and simultaneously perform various tasks. Weapon modules are formed from transport and launch containers (TLCs), which are used as launchers and transport containers at the same time. TPKs are installed in cassettes fixed on platforms in horizontal or inclined positions and have mechanical and electrical interface with general ship systems. The creation of outboard TPK is associated with the solution of a number of interrelated tasks, which, first of all, include: placement of weapons modules in the inter-board space on the submarine; loading, storage and maintenance of weapons; prelaunch preparation; launch and separation of weapons from the carrier.

Russian Intel

The main problem of separation is as follows: sufficient energy is needed to move the weapon from the static position in which it is stored to the dynamic position outside the submarine, in compliance with the requirements for the safety of the carrier and the guaranteed exit of the product to the programmed underwater trajectory of its movement. The energy system of launchers is characterized by factors: a source of energy, an energy conversion scheme, a method for creating a buoyancy force, a method for ensuring a traceless shot.

1 Use of VVD systems for submarines and UUVs
1.1 Advantages and nuances of using VVD
A feature of the operation of underwater launchers is the need to create a large buoyancy force with a relatively small total energy consumption. This imposes significant restrictions on the choice of rational schemes for power systems of starting devices.
The type of energy used in them has a significant impact on the relationship between the starting device and the submarine. In the general case, due to the limited power of the ship’s energy sources and the high impulse power of launchers, it is necessary to include autonomous energy storage devices in their power system.

The main sources of energy available on the submarine are: electricity; high pressure air (HP); high pressure hydraulics. In addition, you can bring: mechanical energy by creating appropriate devices; pyrotechnic energy; weapon energy.
The use of electrical energy is constrained by the problem of creating a high power drive and using it in a short time. It is necessary to obtain very large pulsed currents. The application of the magnetohydrodynamic effect also requires solving a set of problems before it becomes a reality.

With mechanical energy, there are similar problems: in order to obtain large power and realize it in the same short time, a device with significant weight and size characteristics is required. In experimental devices, the energy of elastic deformation of bodies is used (elastomeric ejection systems).

The use of pyrotechnic energy (gunpowder, etc.) makes it possible to obtain a greater energy autonomy of starting devices while meeting the requirements of high reliability and explosion and fire safety.
Therefore, the task of forming the shape of the launcher can be solved by choosing an effective method for converting the energy of the VVD in order to meet all the requirements for the ship’s weapon system to the maximum.
As noted above, when creating outboard weapon modules, an integrated systematic approach is needed to find compromise solutions. Depending on the tasks facing the submarine, and specific tactical situations, the priority of choosing design solutions can be given to several of their most important indicators with reduced requirements for other characteristics of the starting device.
The creation of launchers for miniweapons, due to their small weight and size characteristics, has its own characteristics. The performed design assessments show that for miniguns of up to 5 inches caliber with firing depths of less than 300 m, aerial firing systems remain relevant. The resulting overload of the weapon during its launch in a wide range of depths can be compensated by regulating the air flow.
At the launch of weapons with a caliber of more than 10 inches, the influence of the outboard hydrostatic pressure on the parameters of the air shot becomes significant. In this case, it becomes expedient to use mechanical ejection devices. For calibers of products 10-15 inches, it is preferable to use telescopic pushers built into the sliding rear cover of the launch tube.
Compressed air systems are represented by three ship-wide high-pressure (HVD), medium (VVD) and low-pressure (VND) air systems, as well as special firing systems for torpedo and rocket weapons. The VVD system serves to receive and store stocks of VVD on a submarine, as well as to supply VVD to consumers.

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