Among analysts, it is debatable whether cyber warfare is part of a method of conflict independent of the subject of war. Expert consensus shows that cyberspace has become an important domain for all war capabilities.
Military communication systems, early warning systems, military logistics systems, and some of the most advanced weapons systems are all heavily dependent on computer networks that are considered vulnerable to cyber attacks.
In addition, there are several civilian computer networks, some of which are classified as “important information infrastructures” that could lead to a national catastrophe in the event of any cyber intervention.
As a result, there are clear indications that conflict is inevitably taking place in cyberspace, which will be a tactical or even strategic advantage against an enemy or adversary.
Cyber warfare is semantically different in terms of conflict in other physical areas such as land, sea, air, and outer space, meaning that it crosses the battlefield, allowing attacks from anywhere at the speed of light. It is permissible and since it is able to pass without any recognition, it will be effective and efficient through covert operations.
It is inherently difficult to list all of these, and its effects can be non-physical or easily reversible. At present, no global law on cyber warfare has been adopted; But there is still conflict in cyberspace, and semantically a “gray area” or “wild west”, where countries reduce the likelihood of physical conflict; They are able to attack each other.
In addition, non-governmental actors have discovered the importance of using cyberspace to their advantage, especially intelligence operations, recruitment, fundraising, organizing and gathering information. In several cases, the authorities have used cyber warfare as a proxy to evade retaliation by non-governmental actors.
The use of non-state actors in cyber-attacks, when this type of war is considered illegal, will undoubtedly lead to retaliation if it takes place.
هی Hybrid War Studies