Iranian opinion piece:
Russia, China, Syria and some Middle Eastern countries are especially known for their meticulous and professional use of “patriotic hackers” in cyber attacks against other countries.
The main reason for this approach is plausible denial:
even if the attacking country could detect a cyber attack from a specific geographic source, it would be impossible to prove that the government was accountable to the hackers who acted alone. And this is an effective initiative.
Known for its cyberwarfare, the Russian government targeted the Nashi youth movement in late April 2007 as a powerful vehicle for widespread sabotage of e-services in the Baltic states, including Estonia.
According to analyst Thomas Ride, at the time [none] of Atlantic Alliance experts and the European Security Commission were able to identify Russian hackers in the operation.
Obviously, the Russians and other opponents of the US government are not the only ones who use criminal hackers as tools for undeniable reasons. There are indications that the CIA may sometimes rely on the “anonymous” hacktism group to punish its enemies.
The anonymous operates on the principle of “resistance without a leader”: this institutional organization is not clearly identifiable by its command structure or membership, but is a “hidden and mostly leaderless” movement of hacking activists.
In principle, anyone can be “anonymous” and represent the group. While the unidentified sometimes acted by exposing stolen information from US government computers or destroying CIA websites on a particular occasion, the damage or shame it inflicted on the US government is quite obvious. The CIA has common enemies in its list of parties that have been targeted by unknown hackers for years.
They have also carried out cyber attacks against non-governmental groups such as ISIS and the Los Zetas cartel. Whatever the anonymous claims is being done on behalf of the CIA, it is clear that it is easy for the US government or any other actor to use Anonymous as a proxy or cover force in cyber warfare.
Since there is no anonymous leader, there really is no one who can deny or accept responsibility for some jokes or hacks that appear to have been made in the name of the anonymous